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Severinovich Kazimir Malevich (1878-1935)


Born in a family of immigrants from Poland, was the eldest of nine children. In the years 1889-94. the family moved from place to place, in the village near Parkhomovka Belopole Malevich completed five-class agronomic school. In 1895-96. briefly studied at the Kyiv School of Drawing NI spine. In 1896, after moving to the Kursk, served as a draftsman in the technical management of iron dorogi.Osenyu 1905, arrived in Moscow, attended for informational purposes classes at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture and the Stroganov School, lived and worked in the house of the artist commune B. . Kurdyumova in Lefortovo. Taking classes in a private studio F. Rerberg (1905-10). Spending the summer in Kursk Malevich worked in the open air, evolving as Neo-Impressionists.

Entering the circle of innovators

Malevich participated in exhibitions initiated by M . Larionov , "Jack of Diamonds" (1910-11), "Donkey's Tail" (1912) and "Target" (1913). In the spring of 1911 became friendly with the St. Petersburg company "Union of Youth", which became a member in January 1913 (released in February 1914), in 1911-14 exhibited his works at exhibitions of, participated in the evenings, debates.
Decorative and expressionistic paintings of Malevich turn of 1900-10 's. testified about the development of heritage Gauguin and the Fauves, transformed with the trends of Russian painting "Cezannism." At exhibitions, the artist was presented and its own version of Russian neo-primitivism - the pictures on the theme of peasant life (so-called first paintings of peasant cycle) and a number of works with scenes from "country life" ("Bather", "On the Boulevard", "gardener", all 1911 Stedelik Museum, etc.).

In 1912 he began a creative community with poets AE twisted and Velimir Khlebnikov, Malevich issued a number of publications Russian Futurists (Kruchenykh. Vzorval. Fig. Malevich and O. Rozanova. St. Petersburg., 1913, Khlebnikov, Kruchenykh , E. Gouraud. Troy. St. Petersburg., 1913; Kruchenykh, Velimir Khlebnikov. Playing in hell. 2nd add. ed. Fig. Malevich and O. Rozanova. St. Petersburg., 1914; Khlebnikov. RYAV! Gloves. Fig. Malevich. St. Petersburg., 1914, and others).

His paintings of these years showed the domestic version of Futurism, called "Cubo": cubist shape change, called to approve the self-worth and self-painting, mingled with the principle of dynamism, cultivated Futurism ["Grinder (Principle flicker)", 1912, and others]. Job on the sets and costumes for production in late 1913 futurist opera "Victory over the Sun" (text Kruchenykh, music by M. Matyushina, the prologue Khlebnikov) was subsequently conceptualized as becoming Malevich Suprematism.

In this painting, the artist developed the themes and subjects' abstruse realism "used illogic, irrationality as an instrument of destruction ossified traditional art; alogical painting, expressive of intellectual, trans-rational reality, was built on the shocking installation of diverse plastic and shaped elements that have developed in the composition filled with a certain sense, are ashamed of their ordinary mind incomprehensibility ("The lady at the tram stop", 1913, "The Aviator", "Composition with the Mona Lisa," both 1914, "An Englishman in Moscow", 1914, etc.).

The emergence of Suprematism

After the start of the 1st World War, performed a series of patriotic propaganda popular prints with texts Mayakovsky publishing "Modern splint." In the spring of 1915, there were first paintings abstract geometric style, soon received the name "Suprematism." Invented direction - regular geometric figures, written purely local flowers and immersed in a kind of "white abyss," where laws dominated dynamics and statics - Malevich gave the name of "Suprematism." He had composed the term comes from the Latin root "Suprem" formed in the native language of the artist, the Polish, the word "supremacy", which translated means "excellence", "rule", "domination". At the first stage of the new art of Malevich sought to fix this word supremacy, domination over all other color components of the painting.
 At the exhibition "About 10" in late 1915 for the first time showed 39 paintings under the title "Suprematist Painting", including his most famous work - "Black Square (black square on a white background)", on the same show was distributed brochure "From Cubism to Suprematism." In the summer of 1916 Malevich was drafted into military service; demobilized in 1917.

In May 1917 he was elected to the board of the Union of professional painters in Moscow representative of the left hand of the Federation (young fractions). In August, became chairman of the Art section of the Moscow Soviet of Soldiers' Deputies, where he conducted extensive cultural and educational work. In October 1917 he was elected chairman of "The Jack of Diamonds". In November 1917 the Moscow Military Revolutionary Committee appointed Malevich Commissioner for Heritage Conservation and a member of the Commission for the protection of artistic values, whose task is to protect the values ​​of the Kremlin.


The artist's works

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