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Kuindzhi Antropov (1842-1910)

Antropov Kuindzhi was born in 1842 on the outskirts of Mariupol Greek shoemaker in the family. Kuindzhi surname derived from the nickname of his grandfather, that the Tartar oznachat "goldsmith". In 1845, his father died unexpectedly, Ivan Hristoforovich, shortly mother. The three-year Arkhip alternately brought up with his brother and sisters of the deceased Ivan Khristoforovich. Antropov started learning to read and write in Greek teacher, then a city school. In ten years Kuindzhi stops learning: it is determined by the building contractor. From building contractor Kuindzhi goes to hlebotorgovtsu Amoretti potted boy.

Passion for drawing led him to Theodosia to I. Aivazovsky . Apparently, the initial letters of the beautiful lessons Kuindzhi was not Aivazovsky, while Fessler - a young painter, who worked at the same time who studied Aivazovsky. But soon Antropov returned to Mariupol, where went to work as a retoucher in the photographic studio of his older brother.

In 1866 Kuindzhi went to St. Petersburg to enter the Academy of Fine Arts. He has twice held the exams at the Academy of Fine Arts, and both times to no avail: the weak was artistic training. In 1868, the academic exhibition Kuindzhi presented a picture of "Tatar hut," for which he received the title of class artist. In the same year he was admitted to the Academy volunteer. The Academy Kuindzhi befriended I. Repin and B. Vasnetsov , met with I. Kramskoi , M. Antokolsky, V. Makovsky . Future Wanderers largely defined his artistic interests.

Antropov created in 1872, the painting "Autumn thaw" of his realistic paintings orientation was close Peredvizhnik. It seems hard to find in this time of a product that is so sad, so hopeless gloom reflected Russian life. Kuindzhi not just handed a cold autumn day, blurry road with dimly gleaming pools - he introduced into the landscape lonely figure of a woman with a child, which is difficult to go through the mud. In the 1890s, the artist repeated in mirror image "autumn floods." The painting, called "The Fall. Fog, "was left unfinished.

In 1870 - 1873 years Kuindzhi frequently visits the island of Valaam. The result is a picture of "Ladoga" (1870) and "On the island of Valaam" (1873). In the "Ladoga" Kuindzhi overcome over-voltage in the transmission of weather conditions inherent in the works of the late Romantics. Landscape filled with delicately: thin light shades, beautiful tonal integrity letters remove light contrasts that report is usually a dramatic sense.

In the film "On the island of Valaam" the artist is the story about the nature of the island, with its granite cliffs, washed by canals, with dark dense forest, fallen trees. Silver-bluish tone painting tells her special emotional elation. In 1873 the painting "On the island of Valaam" was over and exposed to the academic exhibition. After the exhibition Kuindzhi talking about in the press, noting his original and great talent. Ilya Repin wrote Pavel Tretyakov on Kuindzhi "On the island of Valaam": "Everybody likes it badly, and yet no further than today visited me Kramskoj - he delighted with it."

Also in 1873 Kuindzhi exposes Society for the Encouragement of Fine Arts in painting "Snow", for which in 1874 at the International Exhibition in London receives a bronze medal.

In 1873 Kuindzhi travels to Germany. He visited Berlin, Dusseldorf, Cologne, Munich. The main purpose of his trip abroad - the study of the old masters, particularly well represented in the Munich Pinakothek. In addition to Germany, Kuindzhi visited France and London. Then, through Switzerland and Vienna back in Russia.

On his return to Russia in 1874 Kuindzhi paints a picture "The Forgotten Village", which is the societal sound ruthless truth show Russian village resonated with pictures Wanderers. Wretchedness of the Russian village is expressed in the painting rusty colors. Nature apprehended in connection with the grim, ruined human being. Abandonment of human life stresses dull gray sky, the horizon line extended and sad sight deserted village. Exhibited picture is not on academic exhibition, and exhibition of the Association III Wanderers. On the 'Forgotten Village "critics wrote:" Sadly, so that lack of heart. "

Theme grim, hopeless reality Kuindzhi continued to "Chumatski tract." The artist depicted an endless stream of carts, slowly moving in a gloomy autumn day on the steppe. Feeling cold, damp cloth enhanced color solution. VM Garshin wrote about "Chumatski path": "impassable mud, rain, road, wet oxen, and not less than the Ukrainians wet, wet woods, howling at the hard road of bad weather. All of this is somehow his heart aches. "

In 1875, were written entirely different in mood "Step in the evening," and "Step in bloom." The artist claimed to have the beauty of nature, admiring the life-giving force of the sun's heat. With these works, in fact, begins a new stage of creativity is well established artist.

In the same year Kuindzhi makes a second trip abroad. On his arrival home Kuindzhi said that he was not fascinated French art. He saw Fortuny and was unhappy with the emptiness of his colors. We Kuindzhi nowhere literal transcriptions of Impressionist technique. The attitude to the impressionistic plastic was difficult and proceeded waves. Kuindzhi was close by French masters in search of plastic 1890s. On his arrival from France, he tried to master the medium of light as allowed him to Russian tradition.

In 1876, the Fifth Kuindzhi traveling exhibition presented the "Ukrainian night". With great poetic force opened the amazing beauty of Ukrainian night ... On the bank of a small river lit by moonlight perched Ukrainian hut. Rising Up poplar. On the blue, as if made of velvet, the sky bright stars twinkle. To so naturally and expressively convey moonlight, twinkling stars in the film are all built on the development of virtuoso tonal relationships, on the richness of color combinations. Subsequently MVNesterov recalled manufactured painting Impression: "I'm quite taken aback, was delighted to languor, to a certain forgetfulness of all that lives of the famous" Ukrainian night "Kuindzhi. And what was this magical spectacle, and how little of this wonderful picture left now! Paints have changed enormously ". In 1878, "Ukrainian Night" was shown at the World Exhibition in Paris. "Kuindji - wrote the French critic - unquestionably the most interesting among young Russian painters. Original nationality felt it more than others. "

In 1879 Kuindzhi writes "North" in 1881 - "Dnepr in the morning." The painting "North" continued series of northern landscapes, launched the "Ladoga". Impressionistic this picture can not be named. However Kuindzhi still achieves a color vibration of the air environment. This is achieved by half-tones, the finest nuances of pale pink and pearl color, stroke color separation. The artist at the same time seeking a panoramic see the land, decreasing in the misty expanses. In the "North" felt immobility of land, which is in contact with static dynamic twinkling sky. The painting "North" has completed a trilogy conceived back in 1872, and was the last of the series. For many years afterwards Kuindzhi celebrates nature of southern and central Russia.

In the film "Dnepr in the morning" Kuindzhi again expressed interest in transferring the color temperature. Air discolor color. Smear the artist is not as sensitive as that of the Impressionists, but choppy and fractional. Fog conceals not subject outlines, as in "autumn floods," and saturated with color, presenting a moving dough. Kuindzhi stores panoramic composition dalevuyu perspective, which give the image of stability, but difficult to write with atmosphere contributes to the slow system senses a slight recovery.


The artist's works

See also: - site of the artist A.Kuindzhi.

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