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Kramskoj Ivan (1837-1887)

Ivan Kramskoj (1837 - 1887), Russian painter, art critic and theorist. Born in Ostrogozhsk (Voronezh Province) May 27, 1837 in a poor middle class family.

Since childhood, fond of art and literature. Engaged in drawing since childhood self-taught, then on the advice of a lover began working in watercolor painting. At the end of the district school (1850) served as a clerk and then as a retoucher photographer, which roamed throughout Russia.

In 1857, appeared in St. Petersburg, he worked in a shop AI Denier. That fall, he entered the Academy of Arts, was a student of Markov. For a picture, "Moses exudes water from the rock" (1863) received a small gold medal.

In the years of teaching rallied around an advanced academic youth. Academy graduates led the protest ("revolt of fourteen"), who refused to paint ("Program") specified by the Council on the mythological story. Young artists have filed a petition to the board of the Academy that they should be allowed to choose a theme for each pattern for obtaining a large gold medal. Academy reacted unfavorably to the proposed innovation. One of the professors of the Academy, architect Tone even described the attempt of the young artists, "in the old days you would have given it for a soldier," whereby 14 young artists with Kramskoy in charge, refused in 1863 to write on a given topic Academy - " feast in Valhalla "and got out of the academy.

Left out of the Academy of artists joined the St. Petersburg gang. Prevailing atmosphere here mutual cooperation and deep spiritual interest they owe much of Picture. In his articles and an extensive correspondence (with Ilya Repin , VV Stasov, Suvorin, etc.) defended the idea of a "tendentious" art not only reflects, but also morally transforming rigid, fake world.

At this time it is defined and the calling of Archaeology as a portrait. He often resorted to his favorite graphic technique with the use of white lead, Italian pencil, he also worked, using the method of so-called "wet sauce" to mimic a photo. Painting Technique in Archaeology was - fine finish, which some sometimes considered unnecessary or excessive. However Kramskoj wrote quickly and confidently, in a few hours getting a portrait of similarity: in this respect is wonderful portrait of Dr. Rauhfusa, the last work of a suicide Archaeology. This portrait was painted in one morning, but was left unfinished because Kramskoj while working on this painting is dead.

Portraits created in this period were mostly custom-made, made ​​for a living. Well-known portraits of the artists A. Morozov (1868), I. Shishkin (1869), G. Myasoedova G. (1861), P. Chistyakov (1861), NA Koshelev (1866). The nature of the picturesque portrait in Archaeology receive close on drawing and chiaroscuro, but restrained in color. The artistic language conformed to the image raznochinets Democrat who was not uncommon hero portraits wizard. These are the "Self-portrait" of the artist (1867) and "Portrait of agronomist Vyunnikova" (1868). In 1863 - 1868 years Kramskoj taught at the Drawing School of the Society for the Encouragement of Artists.

However, with the passage of time, "Artel" became gradually retreat to its activities from those contained in the birth of her high moral principles, and Kramskoj left her, fascinated by a new idea - the creation of the Association of Traveling Art Exhibitions. He took part in the development of the statute, "the Partnership" and immediately became not only one of the most active and influential members of the government, but also the ideologue of the Association, defended and justify the basic position. From other leaders of the Association of its independence advantageously distinguished world, a rare open-mindedness, sensitivity to anything new in the artistic process and intolerance to any dogmatism.

The first exhibition of the Association exhibited "Portrait of Fyodor Vasilyev" and "Portrait of M. Antokolsky." One year later, shows a picture of "Christ in the Desert", which hatched the idea for several years. According to Archaeology, "and the old artists Bible, the Gospel and the mythology served as a pretext to express them quite modern passions and thoughts." It, like the Gay and Polenov , the image of Christ expressed his ideal man full of high spiritual thoughts, cooking himself for sacrifice. The artist managed to convincingly speak here about a very important issue for the Russian intelligentsia of moral choice that confronts everyone understands its responsibility for the fate of the world, and this is quite modest in painting painting entered the history of Russian art.

The theme of Christ the artist returned repeatedly. Ended with the defeat of the work on the big picture originally conceived "Laughter (" Hail, king of the Jews ")" (1877 - 1882), depicting a crowd mockery of Jesus Christ. The artist worked selflessly over it for ten or twelve hours a day, but never finished, the very sober assessment of their impotence. Collecting material for her, Kramskoj went to Italy (1876). He traveled to Europe and beyond.  


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