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Mikhail Vrubel (1856-1910)


The brilliant Russian artist Mikhail Vrubel was born on 5 (17) in March 1856 in Omsk in the family executive officer, a member of the Crimean War, who later became a military lawyer. Ancestors from his father came from the Prussian Poland ("Wrobel" in Polish - Sparrow.

Vrubel's mother died when he was three years old. When Vrubel was seven years old, his father married for the second time. Second marriage the father had three children, one of whom died in childhood. Relation to the boy in the newly formed family was wonderful. Stepmother artist Christianovna Elizabeth (nee Wessel) was a serious pianist, and her music studies contributed to the spiritual development of young Vrubel. According to the memoirs older sister Annie, which Vrubel associated warm friendly relations, "the elements of art, music and theater began with the early years of his life element."

Debt service of his father demanded frequent movement. Wrobel from childhood experienced a lot of new experiences, moving from Omsk and Astrakhan, then to St. Petersburg, in Saratov, Odessa, and again in St. Petersburg.

Vrubel began to paint early. In eight years, during a short stay in St. Petersburg, he, with his father, attending drawing classes at the Society for the Encouragement of Artists. In Saratov, Vrubel studying painting from life from a private teacher and in Odessa, attended drawing school. The artist had an excellent visual memory. Nine-year-Vrubel, the memories of his sister, after two visits to the Saratov church, which was placed a copy of the "Last Judgment," Michelangelo "by heart, and reproduced it in all the specific details."

Wrobel received an excellent education. In 1874, he graduated from the Richelieu Classical school with a gold medal and entered the law faculty of St. Petersburg University. In the summer of 1875 Vrubel made his first trip to Switzerland, Germany and France with his family, where he worked part time tutor and private tutor.

At the end of the legal faculty of St. Petersburg University, in the fall 1880 Vrubel entered the Academy of Fine Arts. There are a huge influence on him and Professor P. Chistyakov Serov. In the early stages of his work Vrubel paid much attention to watercolors, at the same time trying to force in easel painting.

In a class of Pavel Chistyakov Wrobel has been since 1882. Chistyakov recommends it as a capable master of composition Adrian Prakhov-head restoration of ancient churches and frescoes in Kiev, who later oversaw the execution of murals in the Vladimir Cathedral. Vrubel was invited to paint the iconostasis of St. Cyril's Church in Kiev (1884-85). It was his first major monumental work. He created the "Descent of the Holy Spirit" in the choir of the church, and sketches of the unfinished painting of the cathedral (four versions of the song "Lamentation").

A few months in 1884, Vrubel held in Venice, studying the art of the early Renaissance. After returning to Russia, he continues to work in Kiev. There's also an artist paints a portrait-painting "Girl against a Persian Carpet" (1886), beautiful fabric which is imbued with the spirit of sadness.

In 1887, Vrubel charged with execution of frescoes for the Cathedral of St. Vladimir on earlier made sketches. In the same year the artist began to study sculpture and created in this area are wonderful works.

In autumn 1889 Vrubel moved to Moscow, where he begins his most prolific period of operation. In Kiev and Moscow earlier period Vrubel leads a bohemian life: often in the circus, befriends a circus rider, and together with his buddies K. Korovin and V. Serov goes to visit her. In Moscow he met with Mamontov, who takes part in the artistic endeavors of the artist.

Vrubel creative manner, which was finally formed in the early 1890s., Characterized by decorative and aggravated expression of Byzantine and ancient art, color richness of Venetian painting. Vrubel nature inspires, transforms it into his teacher and mentor. He said that at the heart of all beauty - "form that is created by nature for ever. She - the bearer of the soul ... "Arts everything and just decorative." Vrubel, in his words, "carrying on a conversation with nature", "looks into the endless curves of the form," "immersed in the contemplation of the subtleties," and sees the world as "the world is infinitely wonderful harmonizing parts ...". The artist studied the structure of the subtleties and intertwining branches, stems and buds, ice crystals that form patterns on the glass, the play of light and shadow, and reflected their knowledge and feelings in his works: Kiev flower studies (1886 - 1887) "Locust" " White Iris "," Orchid ", a panel" Hercules "(1898)," Odile "(1894)," Lilac "(1901)," Kampanuly "," Shells "and" Pearl "(1904)," Shadows of the lagoons' ( 1905), etc. Korovin wrote about the work of the artist, "Wrobel strikingly painted ornament, never borrow from nowhere, always his own. When he took the paper, then, measuring the size, holding a pencil or pen or brush in hand somehow sideways, in different places of paper dealt a hard features are constantly connecting to different places, then loomed the whole picture. " In the natural world closest analogy to this process of a fragmented image of the original lines and strokes that form the intricate ornamental ligature, which suddenly appear the images of familiar objects represent the crystallization of frost on the frosty glass. "

In Moscow period of the artist paints portraits of Mamontov and K. Artsybushev. But the main theme of creativity Wrubel at that time was the theme of the Demon, in which he symbolically puts the "eternal" questions of good and evil, portrays his ideal of a lone rebel who does not accept the ordinary, and injustice. The very idea to create "something demonic," dates back to Kiev. In autumn 1886, Vrubel showing his first sketches to his father, saying that the demon - the spirit of "not so much evil as suffering and sad, but for all that domineering spirit ... dignified. "

Mikhail had the gift of the graphics features and forms, no work could not catch him by surprise. He could expertly handle any job, considering it a challenge to his skill: a painting, paint the dish to carve a sculpture, to come up with a variety of nothing on similar ornaments and vignettes, compose a theater curtain. Wrobel wanted to join in his work with the art of life, he was constantly in search of high monumental style and national form of art and used in his works ornamental and rhythmic solutions. All of this brought him to the style of "modern", a call which was adopted by the artist. Modernism is particularly characteristic of some panels Vrubel (triptych "Faust" for home AV Morozov, Moscow, 1856, "Morning", 1897). " But the artist's work is beyond the scope of Art Nouveau and Symbolism. He sought to create a complex picture of the animate world, combining in his works, the world of human feelings and the natural world ("pan", 1899, "The Night", 1900, "Lilac", 1900).

Prior to 1896 Vrubel was one of the prominent figures Abramtsevo circle, "court painter" Mamontov. He studied interior design in mansions of Moscow patrons and bourgeois, preferring to use their design ideas on the ancient world and medieval chivalric legends. Wrobel served as the architect and master of arts - set up a project of house facade SIMamontov Garden and Savior on the street in Moscow (1891), and for the gates of the Mammoth in Moscow - a decorative sculpture, "Mask of a lion." In the design of houses ST Spiridonovka Morozov and A. Morozov Podsosensky Lane Vrubel works together with the most important architect of the Moscow Art Nouveau FI Schechtel ("The Flight of Faust and Mephistopheles").

In the 1890s. Wrobel performs decorative panels and easel paintings "Venice" (1893), "Spain" (c. 1894) and "Fortune Teller" (1895), "Princess of Dreams" (1896), illustrates the works of Mikhail Lermontov, published on the 50th anniversary of the poet's death involved in the design of the performance in the Moscow Private Russian Opera Mamontov: Rimsky-Korsakov's "Sadko", 1897, "The Tsar's Bride", 1899, "The Tale of Tsar Saltan", 1900; performs sculpture Abramtsevo for majolica factory "Snow Maiden", "Lel", "charge", "Egyptian", etc.; panel "Mikula Selyaninovich and Volga," "Robert and nuns" (bronze, 1896), "Sea King" (ceramics, 1899 -1900). Music by Rimsky-Korsakov, and attract the attention of the artist's poetry of the water element, was one of the drivers to handle the artist's "visual Folklore" (majolica "Kupava" 1898 - 1899 "Sea Princess" 1897 -1900 years. " Farewell to the king of the sea with Volhove Princess "(1899)," Sadko "1899 - 1900.)

The artist's works

See also: - site of the artist Mikhail Vrubel.

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