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Vishnjakov Ivan Yakovlevich (1699-1761)


Ivan Yakovlevich Vishnjakov - the famous Russian portrait painter, muralist, painter, one of the representatives of the secular portrait rococo team leader picturesque Office of the buildings (1739-1761). I.Ya.Vishnyakova critics call "mysterious master of XVIII century." and not just because of his life and work a little information, but also due to the fact that the vast legacy of the artist of the monumental and decorative works and portraits is a sad nominal list of names. From the many works of the master, who fifteen years before his death, did not know the rest of the day, survived only about a dozen portraits. T vorcheskaya fate of this talented painter, born in 1699 in the family of "Imperial Majesty shaternyh Masters of" Jacob Vishnjakova truly tragic. In 1714. he was "released from his father in St. Petersburg", where he studied "lacquer" and then "scenic case" the master Armory V.G.Gruzintsa, and after graduation in 1727. He was sent to the Office of the buildings in the rank of 'scenic journeymen. " Here, under the head of the picturesque team Andrei Matveev, Ivan formed as a muralist, working closely with architects, carvers and sculptors - all those artists who created the decorative style of the period, based on a synthesis of Russian Baroque and Rococo.  But back in the late 20 x-rr. began a joint creative activities Vishnjakova and Marseilles' picturesque affairs professor "Louis Caravaca (Caravaque). Since 1727. He officially became his disciple, as foreign makers witnessed his ability to "write a person with a pretty natural." Although Ivan coped magnificently with the works of their own, whether he did or copies of itself, "wrote the person of His Imperial Majesty Peter I» and other portraits, decorative and performing a lot of restoration work to 1739, he was listed in the apprenticeship. In that year, after the death of A.Matveeva, Vishnjakov became a master and took over the command of the picturesque. further his progress was quite significant. He received one by one rank of ensign (1741g.) and Captain (1742g.), was elevated to the rank of collegiate assessor, thus becoming a nobleman (1745g.), and in 1752. granted the rank of court counselor and sworn. can only wonder that the volume of work that lay on the shoulders of Ivan Jakovljevic. Professional excellence provided him more pressure, and the beautiful "service" was more like a war: ordered, then we must urgently make your own, or provide performers. It seems that one could drown in a pile highest decrees, accounts and reports. But Vishnjakov not only managed all pictorial works in St. Petersburg, Moscow and suburban residences of the court, and he directly participated in them. artist worked closely with the architects Rastrelli, MG Zemtsov and decorator J. Valeriani participated in the endless metamorphoses, restorations and new construction of the Winter, Summer and Anitchkov Palace, the Triumphal Arch in Moscow, St. Peter and Paul Cathedral, the opera house, Peterhof and Tsarskoye Selo palaces.  Painting palace interiors, the creation of images for the Trinity Cathedral and the Church of Simeon and Anna, personal orders Empress Elizabeth ... All of this is punctuated with Vishnjakova the need to wash and clean the old canvases, together with the carvers to gild 'fringe' ceilings and chandeliers, build scenery, rearrange frames, canvases oversew and at the same time act as an expert and consultant in numerous paintings, to watch over the purity of iconography of rulers, not to distort their faces. Ivan Yakovlevich when granting their creative energies expended on the mass of minor works. And it was still a big family: an elderly mother Akulina Anufrievna, three sons from his first marriage, his second wife Maria Feodorovna, who gave birth to three sons and a daughter. Loaded with chores, he managed to take care of their destiny and education, especially for gifted senior Ivan: fussed about his "beautiful apprenticeship in the Office of the buildings and learning the Italian language in the hope of overseas pensionerstvo." The trip to Italy was not tolerated, but Ivan and his younger brother, Alexander became good painters. With 1753g. eldest son was directly involved in all the works of his father and took over the picturesque team after his death on August 8 1761g. During the quarter of a century spent at the head of the team of the Office of picturesque buildings, the artist has created an entire school, which can be rightly called a "school I.Ya.Vishnyakova ". The training system, developed and perfected A.Matveevym Ivan Yakovlevich, was the basis of the principles of teaching at the Academy of Fine Arts. Painters G.Molchanov, I.Belsky, A.Antropov , painter M. Bellers and dozens of lesser known artists were students of this wonderful teacher and caring mentor.


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