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Rodchenko, Alexander Mikhailovich (1891-1956)

Rodchenko, Alexander Mikhailovich (1891-1956), Russian painter and photographer, one of the leaders of the Russian avant-garde of the first half of the 20th century. Born in Moscow on November 23 (December 5) in a family of theatrical props. He studied at the Kazan Art School (1910-1914) under NI Feshin, then entered the Moscow Stroganov School, where he was called up for military service. In 1916 he settled in Moscow and met with V.F.Stepanovoy, who became his wife and companion of art. First, the avant-garde search Rodchenko developed in the mainstream of painting and drawing. Having experienced the impact of a landmark Suprematist Kazimir Malevich , he gave his abstract geometric works (compositions series of movements projected and painted surfaces, concentration of color and shapes, both work - in 1918, a series of density and weight, Liniizm, both work - 1919) more minimalist strictly rational than that of Malevich, the character: in 1915 he created them like drawings, with a compass. Work on scenery cafe "Pittoresk" (1917, together with V.E.Tatlinym , G.B.Yakulovym and others, do not survive) marked the transition to three-dimensional spatial forms - a filigree pendant compositions 1918-1921, known for old photos and modern reconstructions. It laid the foundations of constructivism - style, designed to simulate the engineering world of the future.

Enthusiastically welcomed the revolution as the elements, consonant with "flaming creativity" avant-garde (from a poem by 1918), the artist served in Arts (College for Fine Arts), the People's Commissariat (1918-1921), was one of the most active members of the "Left Front of the Arts" (LEF) . An important focus of the new design steel wood and metal faculties of All-Technical-(Higher Art School), where Rodchenko taught in 1920-1930. In 1924, having bought his first camera, he updated the language of photography, giving it unprecedented power of expression, his custom-made photos, including portraits (with the dog Skotikom Mayakovsky, 1924 Portrait of Mother, 1924; N.N.Aseev, 1927, and others .), as well as reports (with parades, construction sites, etc.) - this is an amazing chronicle of "great change" in society, recorded, thanks to a sharp and unexpected deliberately "Ostranenie" camera angles, it is "at the turn" in a sharp break of the old and the new. He contributed to magazines "Film ph", "LEF", "New LEF", "USSR in Construction", "Soviet Cinema."

There was a remarkable artist of the book: a masterpiece of pictorial poetics of the absurd in the spirit of Dada collages were his books for Mayakovsky's About That (1923, Mayakovsky Museum, Moscow). Artist generalists, Rodchenko also reformed the constructivist style of furniture (draft working the club for the International Exhibition of Decorative Arts in Paris, 1924), clothing (coveralls own in 1923, reminiscent of modern denim cut), publicity and promgrafiki (posters, advertising, candy wrappers, labels for "Mosselproma", "Rezinotresta" GUM and "Mospoligrafa", 1923-1925), finally, the film posters. Also made an outstanding contribution to the avant-garde set design (furniture and costumes for the play Bug in the theater of Vsevolod Meyerhold, 1929, and others). In 1926-1928 he worked in the film industry as a production designer of films Your friend L.V.Kuleshova, 1927; B.V.Barneta Moscow in October, 1927; Albidum S.S.Obolenskogo, 1928 Doll with millions S.P.Komarova , 1928.

In 1930 creative masters like forks. On the one hand, it has been firmly reposition the program of socialist realism agitpropagandoy (registration of collective books of the White Sea-Baltic Canal, the name of Joseph Stalin, 1934, the Red Army, 1938, Soviet Air Force, 1939, and others). On the other - is seeking to preserve inner freedom, the symbol of which for him since the mid-1930s are the images of the circus (in the photo, as well as in easel painting, to which he returns in this period). In the 1940s, adhering to the "unofficial art", Rodchenko wrote a series of "decorative compositions" in the spirit of abstract expressionism.

Rodchenko died in Moscow December 3, 1956.

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