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Ivanov, Alexander Andreyevich


The famous Russian historical painter Alexander Ivanov was born on July 16, 1806 in St. Petersburg in the family of a professor of painting Andrei Ivanov. At age eleven, he entered "volnoprihodyaschim" student at the Imperial Academy of Arts, where he was brought up by his father. Ivanov's official head of the Academy was Professor F. Egorov. Received for achievements in painting two silver medals, the young artist was awarded in 1824 by a small gold medal for which he wrote the program now, "Priam Asking Achilles Hector's corpse" and in 1827 - a gold medal and the title of the artist Class XIV, for the execution of another program, "Joseph was in prison courtiers interprets the dreams of Pharaoh." These paintings, along with such works as: "Bellerophon sent to the campaign against the Chimera" (1829), "The Appearance of Christ to Mary Magdalene" (1835) - belong to the early period of Ivanov and possess all the inherent features of classicism: a balanced composition, distribution of figures and objects on plans, smooth drawing and local color, emotional expressiveness in the interpretation of the traditional mythological and evangelical themes.

Leading value for Ivanov have images of art of the Italian Renaissance. Completes the early period of the artist's painting "Apollo, Hyacinth and Cypress involved in music and singing" (1831-34), created Ivanov already in Rome, which is unusually thin compositional and coloristic harmony of poetic sublimity interpretation of images of ancient myth. It antiquity, perceived through the Renaissance. Artist opens like a divine meaning lurking nature.

Patronize Ivanov Society decided to send him to his account abroad for further improvement, but first demanded that he painted "Belerofont sent to the campaign against the Chimera." In 1830, writing the required picture, Ivanov sent to Italy.

Abroad Ivanov visited Austria and Germany, stayed for a short time in Dresden. From 1831 to 1858 the artist lived in Rome, visited the cities of central and northern Italy, Venice, Naples. Here he made a copy of "The Creation of Man" by Michelangelo in the Sistine Chapel, thought sketches on various biblical subjects. Again referring to the Biblical theme of the gospel artist is working on the sketches for her failure to exercise the painting "Joseph's brothers found the cup in Benjamin's sack" (1831-33). Ivanov carefully studied the Holy Scriptures, especially the New Testament. He wanted to write a big and complex picture, dedicated to the first appearance of the Messiah to the people, but not before tried my hand over the small in terms of the product of "the phenomenon of the risen Christ to Mary Magdalene" (1834). This superb beauty of the picture composition, wherein the nobility of style and pattern, was executed more perfectly in the academic spirit. The picture was a huge success both in Italy and in Russia, and in 1836 in St. Petersburg, the artist was honored for her academic title.

In the 1830s and 40s Ivanov is in constant spiritual communion with many figures of Russian culture and Russian representatives of the advanced intellectuals, reflects on the ways of solution of the deep social contradictions. His outlook was influenced by Gogol, with whom the artist befriended over the years. Gogol is largely affected the presentation of Ivanov's educational problems of art. Ivanov was in close contact with a member of the Moscow circle Wisdom NM Rozhalinym and head of the German Nazarenes artist F. Overbeck, who learned from the ideas of Schelling, who regarded art as the highest form of understanding the world. Ivanov realized enlightenment and prophetic role of the artist, he came to believe that art should serve as a moral transformation and improvement of mankind. The artist sought to understand the basic questions of human existence, to put forward a significant philosophical and moral problems. Developing their own philosophy of art, Ivanov contact with the Slavophile philosophy, adopts the idea of ​​the circle D. Venevitinov.

Inspired by the success of "The phenomenon of the risen Christ to Mary Magdalene," Ivanov began to implement the program of monumental works "The Appearance of Christ to the People" (1837-57), the nominating problems of historic significance. This picture was the life of the artist feat. In it, as in the early remarkable work "Apollo, Hyacinth and Cypress", the artist expressed his thoughts on the impact of the divine and sublime to the transformation of man. The main content of the story pictures - the beginning of liberation and moral regeneration of mankind. A complex multi-figure composition of the painting includes people of different classes and characters. Ivanov interpreted the Gospel story as a real historical event. We see the coming of the Savior to the crowd, "people of different classes, different grieving and inconsolable" (in the words of the artist), gathered around John the Baptist in the Jordan. The Prophet encouraged the crowd hope for deliverance from misery and suffering, pointing to the coming of the Son of God. Everything in the picture is subject to ideological intention of the artist, each person received a deep ideological and psychological meaning. Ivanov, keeping in touch with the traditions of classical monumental reaches the unusual depth of philosophical synthesis and interpretation of the theme. Working on the painting, he pondered deeply into the story, poring topic, made a lot of sketches and drawings, changed the original composition and its details.


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