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Ivan Ivanovich Shishkin (1832-1898)


Ivan Ivanovich Shishkin - not only one of the biggest, but perhaps the most popular among Russian landscape painters. Shishkin knew Russian nature "learned manner" ( Kramskoy ) and loved her with all the force of his mighty nature. From this knowledge and this love was born images that long ago became a symbol of Russia. Shishkin's figure itself personified for the contemporary Russian nature. He was called the "forest warrior-artist", "king of the forest", "old-woodsman," it could compare with the "old sturdy pine, overgrown with moss," but rather, it is like a lone oak tree with his famous painting, in spite of a lot of fans , pupils and imitators.

Shishkin was born in a poor family in Elabuge merchant January 13, 1831 The artist's father, Ivan Shishkin, was not only an entrepreneur, but also an engineer, an archaeologist and local historian, author of "History of Yelabuga." He was the only family who supported (after much hesitation) wanting his son to become an artist. Seeking to instill in his son's interest in history, he drew him to the archaeological excavations of the ancient Bulgarian kingdom on the Volga, where Ivan helped Moscow Professor KI Nevostrueva. In 1844, his father sent the boy to the Kazan gymnasium, where the future artist found a couple of mates with which "could draw and talk" about art. However, the way of school, according to the most Shishkin, let his aspirations and inclinations, and it is after the summer holidays in 1848 did not return to school, "so as not to become an officer." Lines autobiography written in the third person, let you know about the occupations of young Shishkin, received the freedom of "school with its narrow formalism."

In 1852, Shishkin entered the Moscow School of Painting and Sculpture and received good training under the guidance of AN Mokritski (former pupil of A. Venetsianov ). In 1856 - 1860 years, he continued his studies at the St. Petersburg Academy of Arts landscape C. M. Vorobyev . The successes of the young artist, marked with gold and silver medals, and confirmed a review of his former mentor Mokritski, in connection with entering into the Academy Shishkin: "We lost an excellent and gifted student, but hope to see it eventually great artist if he is the same love engaged in the Academy. " Its development is rapid. For his achievements Shishkin consistently receives all possible awards. The hardness of his hand is astonishing: many of his carefully crafted, intricate landscape pen and ink drawings seem engravings. Experiments in lithography, exploring various ways to print, eyeing the etching is not very popular at that time in Russia. Tends to "loyalty, affinity, portrait depicts nature" is already in the early work.

In 1858 - 1859 years Shishkin often on Valaam, the stark, majestic nature of which is associated with the nature of a young man's native Urals.

In 1860, two Valaam landscape Shishkin received a gold medal and the right to go abroad. However, he is in no hurry abroad and in the spring of 1861 sent to Yelabuga, where a lot of writing on nature, "of which only can be a significant benefit to the landscape."

Shishkin travels abroad only in 1862. Berlin and Dresden have not made much of an impression on him: impacted and homesickness ("why am I not in Russia, which is so in love"). Shishkin only perked up in Prague, where "met many Czechs, people are wonderful and willing to speak in Russian." He admires the paintings "Slavic types" large Czech realist 60s of the last century - Joseph Manes. In 1863, in Zurich Shishkin visited the studio of the painter and engraver R. Koller, where he met with the technique of etching.

Mountain scenery in Switzerland left untouched artist; soon, along with students of the Academy of LL Kamenev and EE Dyukkerkom Shishkin began working in the Teutoburg Forest, near Dusseldorf. Filled with pen drawings attracted the attention of many art lovers. The artist recalled it: "Where and wherever you go, everywhere show - this one went Russian, even in the stores ask you if he is not Russian Shishkin, who so magnificently draws."


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