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Hamsters Alex Stepanovich (1804-1860)

Hamsters, Alex Stepanovich (1804-1860), a Russian philosopher, poet, playwright, essayist. Born in Moscow 1 (13) in May 1804 in an old aristocratic family. In 1822-1825 and in 1826-1829 was in the military service, took part in 1828 in the war with the Turks, and was awarded the Order of Courage. After leaving the service, took up the affairs of his estate. Circle spiritual interests and activities Homjakova was exceptionally wide: religious philosopher and theologian, historian, economist, projects emancipation of the serfs, the author of a number of technical inventions, a polyglot linguist, poet and playwright, doctor, painter. In winter 1838/1839 he introduced friends with his work on the old and new. This article, along with the subsequent speech at her response I.V.Kireevskogo marked the emergence of Slavophilism as the original course of Russian social thought. It has been a constant theme outlined Slavophile debate: "What is better, the old or the new Russia? Received a lot of alien elements into its present organization? ... Whether it has lost a lot of its indigenous beginnings and are beginning to have these to us about them regret and try to resurrect them? "Looks Homjakova closely related to his theological ideas in the first place with ecclesiology (doctrine of the Church.) Under the Church Slavophil understood primarily a spiritual connection, born of grace and of the gift of "catholic" combines a lot of believers "in love and truth." In the history of the true ideal of the Church's life remains, the conviction Homjakova only Orthodoxy, harmoniously combining unity and freedom and thereby implementing the central idea of ​​the Church - the idea of ​​catholicity. On the contrary, Catholicism and Protestantism, the principle of collegiality historically disturbed. In the first case - in the name of unity, in the second - in the name of freedom. But in Catholicism and Protestantism, as argued hamsters, treason conciliar top only led to the triumph of rationalism, hostile to the "spirit of the Church."

Religious ontology Homjakova consistently theocentric, it is based on the idea of ​​"the will of the mind" as the first principles of all things, "and the world of phenomena arises from free will." Actually, his ontology - this is primarily a philosophical experience playing intellectual tradition patristics. It is essential to be approved by him unbreakable bond will and mind (both divine and human) that distinguishes the position of the various options Homjakova voluntarism (A. Schopenhauer, E.Gartman, etc.). Rejecting rationalism, hamsters argued the need for a solid knowledge ("zhivoznaniya"), the source of which appears collegiality - "a set of ways of thinking associated with love." Religious and moral principle, therefore, plays a crucial role in cognitive activity, appearing as a prerequisite, and the ultimate goal of the cognitive process. As argued by hamsters, all stages and forms of knowledge, ie "The whole staircase gets his characterization of highly - of faith."

Slavophil historiosophia represented mainly in the Semiramis Homjakova. This is not the finished work (published posthumously) attempted a holistic presentation of world history, to determine its meaning. Critically assessing the results of the interpretation of the historical development of the German rationalism (especially Hegel), hamsters at the same time believed pointless return to the traditional non-philosophical historiography. An alternative to the Hegelian model of historical development and a variety of options Eurocentric historiography schemes in the Semiramis is the image of the historical life, essentially devoid of permanent cultural, geographical and ethnic center. Communication is maintained in the "history" of the interaction of two polar Homjakova spiritual principles, "Iranian" and "Cushitic" acting partly real, partly as a symbolic cultural and ethnic areas. Attaching the ancient mythological world outlines, hamsters, to some extent moving closer to Schelling. NABerdjaev rightly said at the time: "Mythology is ancient history ... the history of religion and ... is the content of prehistory, this idea hamsters share with Schelling. " A variety of ethnic groups become participants in world history, developing their culture under the sign of either "Iranism" as a symbol of freedom of the spirit, or "Kushitism", which symbolizes the "preponderance of the real need, ie not the negation of the spirit, but the denial of his freedom in manifestation. " In fact, according to Khomiakov, these are two main types of the human perception of the world, two possible metaphysical position. Essentially, the distinction between "iranstvo" and "kushitstvo" in the Semiramis is not absolute but relative. Christianity as a philosophy of history Homjakova - not so much the highest type of "Iranian" of consciousness, how much has already overcome it. Repeatedly in the book acknowledges, cultural and historical significance of the achievements of people representing "the Kushite" type. The idea of ​​absolute no national-religious forms of historical life rejected in Semiramis: "History does not know the net tribes. History knows no religion too clean. "

Pushing in his philosophy of history "freedom of spirit" (iranstvo) and the "real" fetishistic look, called "kushizmom" Hamsters kept the key to the Slavophiles dispute with rationalism, which deprived, in their opinion, the Western world of the inner spiritual and moral content and approve its place of "external legal" formalism of the social and religious life. Criticising the West, hamsters was not inclined to idealize the past nor Russia (unlike Aksakova) or its present. In Russian history, he singled out the periods of relative "spiritual welfare" (the reign of Fyodor Ivanovich, Alexis, Elizabeth). During these periods, there was "great stress, high-profile acts of glitz and noise of the world" and created the conditions for organic, natural development "spirit of life of the people."

The future of Russia, which he dreamed hamsters, was to be the overcoming of "gaps" in Russian history. He was hoping for a "resurrection of ancient Rus' treasured in his opinion, the religious ideal of collegiality, but the resurrection -" the educational and slim dimensions ", based on the historical experience of the new government and the cultural construction of the past centuries.

Hamsters died in Ivanovskoe September 23 (October 5) in 1860.

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