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Vasily Vereshchagin (1842-1904)


The largest battle painter Vasily Vereshchagin was born October 26, 1842 in Cherepovets in the family of the landlord. When he was eight years old, his parents sent him to Underage cadet corps, after which in 1853 he moved to St. Petersburg Naval Cadet Corps. This interest in drawing and devotes all his spare time. In 1858, Vereshchagin started attending drawing school in St. Petersburg Society for the Encouragement of Arts. His ability with the approval of teachers responded, and he dreamed of becoming an artist.

In 1860, after graduating brilliantly body, Vereshchagin, against the wishes of their parents, resigned and entered the Academy of Fine Arts. Angered by the act of the son, the father refused him financial aid. Began the difficult years of life. Vereshchagin persistently engaged in painting, but the academic training system with its normative and traditional burden to the artist. The protest was expressed in the young painter that he killed one of his paintings - "Beating the suitors of Penelope returnees Ulysses." In 1863, he left the Academy and went to the Caucasus in order to "free and open space for interesting things to learn." His first independent works were numerous drawings of folk styles, genre scenes and landscapes of the Caucasus.

In 1866, while living on the shore of the village Sheksna Lubiec, Vereshchagin could see the hard work of boatmen. He decided to create the big picture, in which he wanted to show the hopeless poor people share in imperial Russia. Vereshchagin completed sketch for the painting, has written several studies, but failed to finish the job.

In 1867, at the invitation of the Governor-General Kaufman, he went to Turkestan, where at that time there were military clashes. "I went because I wanted to know what the true war of which I read and heard a lot of ..." - the artist wrote. Vereshchagin not only a witness of the war, but its direct participant. In 1868, in the Russian garrison of Samarkand, he defended the fortress against the troops of the Emir of Bukhara and was decorated for bravery and courage of the George Cross. In 1869 - 1870 years Vereshchagin again embarks on a journey to Turkestan: acquainted with this peculiar country is studying the manners and customs of the feudal East and as a result creates a large series of paintings of Central Asia. Artist fluent brush, and sonorous, rich colors convey a sultry southern sky, spring green steppe, cool mountain peaks covered with snow, elaborate ornamentation of the ancient buildings of Samarkand ...

Central to this series occupy the battle scenes, they have had great success in Russia and abroad, defining the main direction of creativity Vereshchagin. Already in the earliest paintings of the artist protested against wars of aggression, with the denunciation of those to blame people were killed. Anti-militarist nature of the works - the result of deep thought and life observations Vereshchagin, who made a courageous battle painting the harsh truth, which to him in this genre did not know Russian art. Heroes of his paintings he made the soldiers, ordinary Russian people. "Soldiers Vereshchagin - wrote Stasov - it's all the same people, but ... wearing a uniform and a gun. "

In the painting "At the Fortress Wall. Let them Enter "(1871) in suspense awaiting battle Russian soldiers. Harsh with their faces in poses strong determination. In the film "Signed" - the same place in the fort, but after the fight. A number of battle paintings combined in series, where the artist develops the idea of ​​the cruelty of the feudal lords, the wildness of the orders, the heroism and courage of Russian soldiers: "Look out" (1873), "attack by surprise" (1871), "presents trophies" (1872), " Triumph "(1872) and" The Apotheosis of War "(1871 - 1872). "I do not know - wrote Kramskoy about Vereshchagin - is there currently an artist equal to him, not only here but also abroad ..."

Bold incriminating pictures aroused hostility to the reactionary circles of the Russian artist, who accused him of defaming the Russian army. Hard to experiencing unfair charges, Vereshchagin burned three paintings: "The Forgotten", "Surrounded - pursuing" and "Signed".

Works Vereshchagin forbidden to exhibit and reproduce in books, newspapers and magazines. For thirty years, the tsarist government did not acquire a single painting has become a world-renowned artist. Only Pavel Tretyakov bought most of Turkestan works.

In 1874 - 1876, 1882 - 1883 Vereshchagin's made two trips to India to study life, nature and life of the country. When traveling, he had to endure hardship, subject to mortal danger: on the snow peaks of the Himalayas, he nearly froze to death, in the sweltering tropical heat ill with fever. The result of observations was more than one hundred and fifty sketches depicting the grandeur of Indian architecture of white stone, the blue of the southern sky, bright national costumes Indians. Among the best studies include: "Buddhist Temple in Darjeeling" (1874 - 1875), "The glacier on the road from Kashmir to Ladakh" (1875), "The mausoleum of the Taj Mahal" (1874 - 1876).

Several paintings by Vereshchagin decided to devote stories capture India by the British. He originated the idea of ​​creating a large painting of the poem, which was to tell about the historical fate of India, about the transformation of a powerful independent country into a colony of the British Empire. The artist managed to execute only some of these paintings, in particular, "the process of English and the native authorities in Jaipur" (1875 - 1879).

The artist's works

See also: - site of the artist V.Vereshchagin.

artist Vasily Vereshchagin , Russian artist Vasily Vereshchagin , about the artist Vasily Vereshchagin , Information about artist Vasily Vereshchagin

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